See Article History Calendar, any system for dividing time over extended periods, such as days , months , or years , and arranging such divisions in a definite order. A calendar is convenient for regulating civil life and religious observances and for historical and scientific purposes. The development of a calendar is vital for the study of chronology , since this is concerned with reckoning time by regular divisions, or periods, and using these to date events. It is essential, too, for any civilization that needs to measure periods for agricultural, business, domestic, or other reasons. The first practical calendar to evolve from these requirements was the Egyptian , and it was this that the Romans developed into the Julian calendar that served western Europe for more than 1, years. The Gregorian calendar was a further improvement and has been almost universally adopted because it satisfactorily draws into one system the dating of religious festivals based on the phases of the Moon and seasonal activities determined by the movement of the Sun.
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Gaffney et al The monument was originally excavated at Warren Field near Crathes Castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in , as unusual crop marks spotted from the air by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. The monument, dated to the 8th millennium BC, is a group of 12 pits. It appears to possess basic calendrical functions and pre-dates the first formal time-measuring devices known to humans by about five thousand years, says new analysis published in the journal Internet Archaeology.
According to the study, the structure appears to mimic the phases of the Moon in order to track lunar months over the course of a year. The Warren Field site also aligns on the Midwinter Sunrise, providing an annual astronomic correction in order to maintain the link between the passage of time, indicated by the Moon, the asynchronous solar year and the associated seasons.
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How Were They Made? He had been flying over the mountains of Mpumalanga, South Africa for over 20 years and took an interest in the thousands of strange circular stone objects scattered throughout the region and began photographing them. In consulting experts on their origins, he was informed that they were the remains of “cattle kraal” livestock enclosure left behind by the Bantu people when they migrated from the north around the 14th century.
There are also several thousand of them spread over tens of thousands of miles. Bantu cattle kraal Image source An air crash involving one of his crew brought Johan to discover the mysterious monolithic circle by accident. On route to find one of his pilots who crashed his plane on the edge of the cliff, Johan noticed an arrangement of large stones sticking out of the ground next to the crash site. While rescuing the injured pilot down the side of the cliff, Johan walked over to the monoliths and realized they were aligned to the cardinal points – north, south, east and west — as well as the equinoxes and solstices.
There were at least 3 monoliths aligned towards the sunrise, but on the west side of the aligned monoliths there was a strange hole in the ground. After weeks and months of measuring and making observations, Johan suspected it was a stone calendar. It still works perfectly as a calendar today by following the shadow of the setting sun, which is cast by the taller central monolith onto the flat stone beside it. This remarkable calendar was originally a large circular stone structure resembling Stonehenge and in the center of the ‘circle’ are two upright stones which are said to have been carved.
Calendar to Business Day Conversion
The controversy around this topic has been continually growing, and Don took on the challenge to find the truth. He has been keeping the traditional Holy Days of the Hebrew Calculated Calendar for over 40 years, and sought to establish a factual proof for these beliefs. The challenge would be tough, but his years of experience solving problems would prove to be beneficial.
The next year, in the spring of , the Midwestern United States experienced unprecedented flooding. This caused Don to thoroughly review the events of the Noachian Flood , the greatest of all floods, in Genesis 7 and 8. This study resulted in something extraordinary.
British archaeologists have found what they say is the world’s oldest calendar, dating back to about 8, BC. An artist’s impression of a fire burning in one of the Warren Field calendar pits.
Following shorter formats also can be used: It is used in the standard iCalendar file format defined in RFC A big advantage of the ISO “basic format” is that a simple textual sort is equivalent to a sort by date. It is also extended through the universal big-endian format clock time: Gregorian, month-day-year MDY [ edit ] See also: This date format was commonly used alongside the little-endian form in the United Kingdom until the mid th century and can be found in both defunct and modern print media such as the London Gazette and The Times , respectively.
In the United States, it is said as Sunday, November 9, although usage of “the” isn’t uncommon e. Sunday, November the 9th, and even November the 9th, Sunday, are also possible and readily understood. Sunday, November 9, Nov. The ordinal was common in the past, and is still sometimes used 4th July or July 4th. Gregorian, year-day-month YDM [ edit ] Standards[ edit ] There are several standards that specify date formats: In the United States , dates are rarely written in purely numerical forms in formal writing, although they are very common elsewhere; when numerical forms are used, the month appears first.
In the United Kingdom, while it is regarded as acceptable albeit less common to write month-name day, year, this order is never used when written numerically.
Galactic Standard Calendar
Ancient and religious calendar systems The Near East and the Middle East The lunisolar calendar , in which months are lunar but years are solar—that is, are brought into line with the course of the Sun—was used in the early civilizations of the whole Middle East , except Egypt , and in Greece. The formula was probably invented in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium bce. Study of cuneiform tablets found in this region facilitates tracing the development of time reckoning back to the 27th century bce, near the invention of writing.
Three seasons Assyria and four seasons Anatolia were counted in northerly countries, but in Mesopotamia the bipartition of the year seemed natural.
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Two types of product dating may be shown on a product label. The calendar date provides consumers with information on the estimated period of time for which the product will be of best quality and to help the store determine how long to display the product for sale. Does Federal Law Require Dating? Except for infant formula, product dating is not required by Federal regulations. For meat, poultry, and egg products under the jurisdiction of the Food Safety and Inspection Service FSIS , dates may be voluntarily applied provided they are labeled in a manner that is truthful and not misleading and in compliance with FSIS regulations 1.
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The Gregorian calendar was proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII and took effect in most Catholic states in , in which October 4, of the Julian calendar was followed by October 15 in the new calendar, correcting for the accumulated discrepancy between the Julian calendar and the equinox as of that date. When comparing historical dates, it’s important to note that the Gregorian calendar, used universally today in Western countries and in international commerce, was adopted at different times by different countries.
Britain and her colonies including what is now the United States , did not switch to the Gregorian calendar until , when Wednesday 2nd September in the Julian calendar dawned as Thursday the 14th in the Gregorian. The Gregorian calendar is a minor correction to the Julian. In the Julian calendar every fourth year is a leap year in which February has 29, not 28 days, but in the Gregorian, years divisible by are not leap years unless they are also divisible by How prescient was Pope Gregory!
Whatever the problems of Y2K, they won’t include sloppy programming which assumes every year divisible by 4 is a leap year since , unlike the previous and subsequent years divisible by , is a leap year. As in the Julian calendar, days are considered to begin at midnight. The average length of a year in the Gregorian calendar is As a purely solar calendar, no attempt is made to synchronise the start of months to the phases of the Moon.
In doing so, this implementation uses the convention that the year prior to year 1 is year 0. The date December 30th, 0 in the Gregorian calendar corresponds to January 1st, 1 in the Julian calendar. A slight modification of the Gregorian calendar would make it even more precise. If you add the additional rule that years evenly divisible by are not leap years, you obtain an average solar year of
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Tenth Month 29 The consuls’ terms of office were not always a modern calendar year, but ordinary consuls were elected or appointed annually. This was undertaken by a group of scholars apparently including the Alexandrian Sosigenes  and the Roman M. After Antony’s defeat at Actium , Augustus assumed control of Rome and, finding the priests had owing to their inclusive counting been intercalating every third year instead of every fourth, suspended the addition of leap days to the calendar for a number of decades until its proper position had been restored.
Egyptians used the related Alexandrian calendar , which Augustus had adapted from their wandering ancient calendar to maintain its alignment with Rome’s. A few emperors altered the names of the months after themselves or their family, but such changes were abandoned by their successors.
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Edit The calendar, also referred to as the Coruscant Standard Calendar[ source? For this reason, this method of numbering years remains important to historians. They were short-lived and used by various historians at the time. From that point on, the year in which the Battle of Yavin occurred was the epoch used for the dating system. Many regions, however, kept their own calendars, including the Imperial Remnant.
It was a luno-solar calendar based both on Coruscant’s orbit around its sun, and the orbit of its primary satellite, Centax The standard unit of time was the standard second. Sixty standard seconds made up each standard minute, and sixty minutes made up each standard hour. Each day consisted of 24 standard hours. A standard week was 5 standard days, and each month was seven weeks making 35 standard days each month.
A standard year was days, composed of ten months, three fete weeks , and three holidays. As the Hyperdrive Theory allowed space travelers to bypass relativity, a single duration of time passed at all locations equally over a given interval. One subset of the calendar, known as the month standard calendar, was used by the Republic Judiciary during the time right before the Clone Wars.